This is the unedited transcript for webinar: Five Steps to Optimize Casting and Eliminate Defects.
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Hello everyone and thank you for attending the design world webinar series. Today’s webinar is 5 steps to optimize casting and eliminate defects, brought to you by design world magazine and solid thinking. We would like to thank our presenter, Pablo Fernandez for being here today. Martin [so-lee-no 00:00:29] was scheduled to be present but he had an emergency so Pablo will be conducting the entire presentation. I’m Lesley [lang-naw 00:00:37] and I will be your moderator today.
Just a couple of housekeeping details before we get started, you will see several boxes on your desktop, all of which can be moved around to suit your preferences. Initially the Q&A box is at the lower left corner on that bar that you see at the bottom of your screen and this is where you will enter your questions for the Q&A session. Along box to note is the additional resources. Initially it is at the lower right hand corner of your screen and you can move it around. These resources are for you additional information needs. We also have a tweet button on the desktop, so you’re free to tweet any interesting points right from there. There’s a list of hashtags to make it easier for you.
Okay, Pablo Fernandez is a mechanical engineer and senior technical support at Click to Cast. He is well versed in CAD, CAM, CAE and foundry tools, and has worked on software validation, support, and software development of the Click to Cast simulation tool. He will be available after the presentation to answer any questions. So without further ado, I’m going to turn the presentation over to Pablo.
Thank you Leslie. Hello to everybody, my name is Pablo. I am in charge of technical support of Click to Cast. I’m going to show you a presentation of our product.
Let me start about the software. [inaudible 00:02:13] simulation software that we have developed under the concept of these abilities. While the objective for software is to bring everyone in casting or designing the simulation. You will be able to use the software from the first day without any specific training.
Regarding the benefits of Click to Cast, using Click to Cast we can develop iterations between the design and the production. We can keep the know how at home because it won’t be needed to [inaudible 00:02:52] the simulation due to the ease of use of Click to Cast. With unlimited investment we will give a powerful tool to the designers and users to validate data models.
Click to Cast will help us to understand better what is the better design for our components. Where we have to position, for example, in gate. Where we have to position the right service or the overflows. Study the balance of the system. All will be possible with very easy way in Click to Cast.
Talking about the Click to Cast, what Click to Cast provides to the user, I’m going to show you the main people of Click to Cast. Talk about them. Just in case you are not familiar with.
I will also show you how to set up all the perimeters that you will usually select. You can select in your machine how to set up the same in Click to Cast.
Then I will show you how Click to Cast works through the, what we call five steps. These steps are [inaudible 00:04:21] to step. Then meshing, perimeters, run the calculation and finally analyze the simulation results that Click to Cast provides.
Regarding the casting processes that Click to Cast is able to simulate. We can simulate a [high person 00:04:43] casting process. We can simulate a low person casting process. Gravity, [inaudible 00:04:51] process gravity also with put in for [inaudible 00:04:55] machines.
Let me start with the ingate definition. Before the mission generation is is necessary to describe, what is ingate? Ingate means the [inaudible 00:05:13] of the material will enter into the part. As you can see in these two pictures, there are two different ways to select the ingate.
The first one is the automatic option. You can see here. If you have to design the fill in system with all the channels and you have to design this in the cat, you can select the ingate and you will be able to simulate the [inaudible 00:05:49] using this ingate.
In case that you are not designed, you are working from the scratch with a single part. Using the advance option we can select diluted ingate in the component. You can see here in this picture, we can use automatic option, selecting the previously designed ingate, in the cat or we can use what we call real time ingate but select the size and the orientation or position. We can create this [inaudible 00:06:35] ingates.
Using this advance option it allows to start working before the [inaudible 00:06:45] has been assigned. From the [inaudible 00:06:48].
Let’s talk about the casting process that we can simulate in Click to Cast.
The first one is high pressure die casting. Many of you know, hyper pressure casting is a manufacturing process in which the multi metal is just injected with a casting machine using a big pressure. This metal is injected into a steel mold from the product. The products, as you can see in this picture, normally has very thin walls. That’s why it’s needed this high pressure to feel the complete component and to avoid the solidification due to filling. That’s why we are using this high pressure, this high velocity.
You can see in this picture we have the mold, we have the cavity and we have this piston cavity that we will fill the metal and we will fill the mold of it.
Let me talk about the process in high pressure. First, as you can see in this picture, the molten metal is poured into the cavity chamber. Then the piston starts to push the metal but with a low velocity in order to avoid turbulence and the formation of bottles in this first state, this first velocity with using a low velocity.
Before the material enters into a part and the velocity change and the piston push very fast the material to fill the full cavity, as you can see in this picture.
That’s why after the component has been solidified the mold will open and we can remove the part.
This is what we are introducing in Click to Cast. See here, we have there’s velocity, the second velocity and we have to select a note in the component to change between this first and second velocity.
As I said, normally we have to change before the material reach the component. We can start by using this first velocity, this low velocity for the filling system, for the runner, and before the material reach the component, change to the second velocity. We can do it by selecting, reducing this selection node, select an opponent into the [inaudible 00:09:48].
You can see it’s very simple. I select the first and second velocity and select the point to change from the first to the second velocity.
That’s all that we have to set up talking about the high pressure casting process.
Regarding low pressure the casting, in low pressure the casting the metal is transferred from an air tight furnace to rising into a metal tube. Let me show you … This slide.
You can see here that we have a [inaudible 00:10:27] fashion. We increase the pressure, the material will start to rise in this cloud until it reach the mold and … This is a similar process than gravity casting but we have better results using this process because we control the filling of the mold.
As you can see in this slide, first we fill the furnace with the material and then we start to increase the pressure and the material will start to go through this spork until it’s reached the mold.
After that the pressure continues. It maintain it. Once the parts have been solidified the molds will open and we can start the component.
Regarding Click to Cast, we have to stop basically the thing that we’re setting in our machines is the pressure good, we have to set up the time in milli seconds and the pressure and also we have to stop the distance between this piece of space of the crucible and the mold. This is just for simulations.
Also we have to keep in mind the gravity direction that we are using. Gravity direction is just the position of the component into the mold.
All that we have to set up regarding low pressure casting … let’s see the gravity casting process.
Gravity casting, the molten metal is just poured directly over the mold. It is not so technology process like high pressure casting or low pressure casting. We only have to define the gravity direction and the velocity or the filling type.
Let me show you first … the process in gravity the casting. This is with permanent mold. We have to pour the metal into the mold, the mold closes then pull the metal then wait until the material solidified. Once it has been solidified the mold will open and we can remove the component.
This similar … There are some difference. In fan casting we are using not a permanent mold. We’re using a [sand 00:13:24] mold. The process will be different. First we will make the bottom of the sand mold and then the top and finally we will pull into the sand the to fill all the component. Finally we’ll break the mold and we get the component.
Regarding Click to Cast settings in case we are using gravity dye or sand casting, we have to set up a set gravity direction and if we know the filling time we can set up the filling time. It’s the most common perimeter that we usually know in your machine. Or if you know the filling time you can use also the [ingate velocity 00:14:21].
In this case the velocity will be low. Maybe around 4-5 [inaudible 00:14:29]. We are using the dye then we’re pouring the material into them.
Finally let me talk about the gravity tilt pouring process. This is similar to gravity casting. In this case we are using [a basculation 00:14:50]. Gravity pulling the aberration of the permanent mold. The tilt pull casting. It is the pulling of molten metal into the mold by tilting the mold to fill it in a controlled fashion.
As you can see here we will pour the [inaudible 00:15:14]. We will pour the metal into the mold. It will starts to rotate. This is in order to get a controlled fashion of the filling. Finally we will get the led.
Settings in Click to Cast, in this case in gravity tilt pouring we will need to set up also the gravity direction but we have to set up the rotation time. It’s the same as the filling time. The initial angle. The final angle will be always [inaudible 00:15:54]. Picture. Not the initial, could be I don’t know, -45 or -90. It depends on the vasculation machines. We have to set up the initial angle and the axis of rotation. That’s all.
Let me talk now … This the most common processing in casting that Click to Cast is able to simulate. Now let me show you how to simulate a component in Click to Cast through four or five simple steps and through our user interface.
The first one is the geometry stage. As you can see in this video, at this a stage we have to import the geometry. Click to Cast works with a single [inaudible 00:16:55] in SPL format. All caps can [inaudible 00:17:00] in this format. This is a vertical format. This solid. This is a single part as we have seen. It can be a single part, or it might contain, as you can see in this video it might contain [inaudible 00:17:24] to the system or in case we’re using high personnel casting it may contain overflows. All must be together as I close it.
This is to facilitate the user management. Once we have imported the model and selected the lens units click on next and it will pass to the second selection.
Import the SPL file, select the model units, and click on next.
This is the meshing stage. To create a mesh it is not necessary to use a complex meshing perimeters. Just select an ingate. You can see this animation. Click on that ingate. Select ingate. Remember that ingate is a place where the material comes into the mold. The other thing that we have to select is the size of the mesh. Officially before it is not needed to find ingate. Click to Cast allows to create a better ingate just with one click. It will say fast time when design in the cat. Just click ingate, select ingate position and select the size of the mesh.
Once we have the mesh if we go to the next step we’ll be able to set up the process perimeters. First we have to select the casting and more material. There is an extensive material [inaudible 00:19:04]. All them available in the same packets. It includes the most common casting material. Such as aluminium, casting iron, steel, [inaudible 00:19:17], brass, etc.
Besides material it is also necessary to select the process parameters.
As we have seen Click to Cast allows to set up the particular parameters for most of our casting process. [inaudible 00:19:35] casting process. We have to stop as we have seen the first and second velocity. Low pressure the casting. We have to set on the pressure and gravity rise and casting. We have to set up the velocity of the filling. Finally for gravity the casting to put in we have to set up the axis, the angle for rotation and the time. As you have seen it’s quite simple.
Once we have set up all these process parameters we are ready to run the calculation.
In the next step we will launch the calculation. It is necessary to select the analysis we’re going to run. Filling and solidification are both at the same time. Once the filling finished, solidification will be done using the last [inaudible 00:20:31] of the filling.
Click to Cast was in parallel. It will profit the full capabilities of the computer to renew the calculation time. Regarding calculation time, it is not necessary to wait until the end of calculation to analyze the results. Once the calculation has reached 1% it is possible to go to the next page and check the results.
This is important because it allows us to check the visibility of the simulation in first stages. We haven’t to wait until the end of the calculation.
Finally regarding the results, we have an easy way we can access to all the results. You can see here, through this bar. We can access all the results. It is very simple to create sections, for example. Just clicking two points over the screen. Also with one click we can create graphics, we can create [inaudible 00:21:42], we can export all this information very easily with also one click.
It is also very simple to analyze this results through the time by using the [inaudible 00:21:53]. You can see at the bottom of the screen.
It’s easy to record videos, take some pictures. Click it once in the picture or in the video. We will be able to record a video or to make a picture. Go to the configuration options we can change the quality of this video and these pictures.
Now I’m going more in deep in the simulation results. Click to Cast will show us the filling results and the solidification in different stages. We will choose which results we want to see.
Regarding, for example, the filling results as you can see here the first one is the [front flow 00:22:57] evolution. With front flow shows the filling material evolution. [inaudible 00:23:05] gives us primarily an idea of the filling time and the way the part is filled.
Using the front flow it is possible to study the behavior of the material entered into the mold. It will help us to know what is the [inaudible 00:23:23] and how would [ease our 00:23:26] design.
It is also interesting to realize the position of the chosen gate is correct, etc. it’s an interesting result.
Regarding temperature evolution, which is here, this result shows the evolution of the temperature in the filling. These animations help us to better understand the head loss during this.
Regarding velocities, as you can see here, velocities and vectors will provide us the information of the velocities in it’s a, the component. Besides this, it will also help us to analyze the turbulent area or the filling of the component. Take a look at the velocity.
All the interesting [inaudible 00:24:34] content. One, because these results shows where the material with different temperature is colliding. Where it is possible to find some problems with [inaudible 00:24:51] due to this collision of material.
All the results, the [inaudible 00:25:00] in this light is an entrapment. Analyzing the entrapment option we will see that this option shows us what is located against the walls in the filling. If this data doesn’t have possibility to escape it will probably cause velocity on the surface.
Using this option we will be able to know where we have velocity due to the age of it.
Other results of the filling and [inaudible 00:25:37] is the mold erosion. As you can see in this picture. Mold erosion, we show the areas where there are solidified material during the filling. This is useful to help us to prevent possible lack of material, especially in gravity casting it’s very common. This option will also help us to control if we are using the core velocity or if we are using the core filling time.
Next option is the filling time. Filling times will show us how long it takes to fill each area of the component. We can realize exactly the time by using this legend of scale in different colors. We will know the total filling time and also the filling time in a particular region that will want to know by using different colors in a legend we will be able to know which time it has taked to reach the component in seconds.
These are the results of the fillings regarding solidification. We can also analyze the temperature evolution but in this case during the solidification. That’s here. We can also analyzing these results we can also make some wraps like the solidification cure. We want to analyze, where is the liquids area? Where is the solids area? We can also support all this information in case, we want for example, to use it in an excel file to create some graphics. It is very easy I Click to Cast.
Solidification result is maybe one of the most interesting results in Solidification. The results will help us to understand the solidi-faction behavior.
Third color, as you can see here, is showing us where are the liquid areas. We can control which are the lat areas to solidify and knowing where we will be located this material. Where we will be most of the concentration of velocity due to this contraction of material during the Solidification. You can see in this picture, the red color is the liquid material and the blue one is showing the solidified area. We can control where are the last areas to solidify and where will we have most of the problems of velocity during this contraction of material?
Even it’s possible to know which is exactly the size of the [inaudible 00:28:41] velocity, including meters, by using the velocity option. We can know what is this velocity and which size has this velocity in Click to Cast.
In order to prevent this velocity we can use the tool that we call rice designer is one. This tool will help us to get the optimal size to design the ricer. Ricer, as many of you will probably know, it is a material using to avoid velocity in the component. This ricer designer tool will help us to get the optimal size for a ricer. Helping us to review the velocity located at the component. The velocity due to the contraction of material during the solidification will reformat into the ricer and the component will be free of velocity. This option will help us to get the optimal size to design this ricer to avoid this branch of velocity.
To do a quick recap what I have shown. I basically show you how Click to Cast works, how to generate a mesh, set up the perimeters and run a calculation. I also have shown how to realize the results in Click to Cast. I want to invite you to load the software. You can do it through our web page. Show you in this slide
You will notice how simply initially it is to make a simulation with Click to Cast. If you ever have used a cast simulation sober you will see the difference without, and how without any training you will be able to run a simulation and realize your own components from the first day.
Just to let you know, we are testing validation on the next version of Click to Cast. Version 3.1 this new version will be released in June. This version will allow us to simulate different components like [inaudible 00:30:59] as well as [inaudible 00:31:03] casting and other.
If you have any questions I will be glad to answer.
Alrighty. Thank you Pablo for an interesting presentation. As Pablo mentioned, now is the time to enter your questions into the Q&A box and Pablo will be available to answer them. We do have one question that has come in: how does the software delineate it’s temperature differences affect air entrapment?
We have both options. We have the temperature evolution. We can [inaudible 00:31:45] the temperature evolution to know what is the temperature do in the filling or the solidification. [inaudible 00:31:55] is showing us just what is the [inaudible 00:31:59] against the wall.
If we go to this using the [inaudible 00:32:04] option, go to know exactly the location of this velocity we can using the temperature option we can start it which is the temperature in this point that we are showing in the entrapment option. Analyze what is this temperature and we can, with a graphs option for example, we can create a graphs to analyze the behavior of the temperature in this specific air entrapment area.
For anybody else feel free to go ahead and put in your questions. Just a reminder to all of the attendees, this presentation, a link will be sent out to you over the next few days in your email. It will also be made available online at www.designworldonline.com
We have another question, Pablo. This one is: can you speak about gate location, multiple gate and vents?
Yes. Let me back to the slide when we talk about the ingate location. This one.
We have two options to select the ingate locations. One is the automatic. If in the cat we have designed the filling system, as you can see in this picture, just select over this and we will select automatically the ingate position.
In case that we are not designed the filling system, in case we are using the … Imagine we’re a designer and you want to design the filling system, you can use, we call the bill to ingate. Using this advanced option, just selecting the type of ingate that we want to use in hyper casting is more comment in a square or rectangular ingate. In gravity we can use a [inaudible 00:34:19] ingate.
In case, for example, in personal casting we want to design an ingate, just placing selecting the height and the width and the orientation we can design this build to ingate into the component and we can work from scratch from the original component. Previously to having to design the filling system.
This is very interesting because we can avoid having to go back to the cat and design the filling system or the ingate. We can work guidedly inside Click to Cast to design this built on ingate.
Regarding the vents, regarding the floors, we can do the same way. Working with the component without the vents, and then once we have analyzed the results and we know where are the last area without entrapments we can then go back to the cat design these vents in this area that we are having velocity due to entrapment. Then simulate again by using this new design.
Another question has come in: can this software simulate ceramic materials cast in pewter molds?
Not in this version. Next release will allow us to simulate other kinds of materials like [inaudible 00:36:02], slips. In this case, ceramic materials we cannot simulate in the current version.
Okay. If you do have additional questions you see that Pablo’s email contact is on your screen. Feel free to email him. If you have other additional questions you can send them to me as well and I will forward them to the appropriate people. I would like to thank everyone for attending today’s webinar. Just as a reminder again: you can continue to tweet about it via the hashtag dwwebinar. You can connect with your fellow engineers about this subject or others through any of our social media platforms such as twitter and Facebook and also our own engineeringexchange.com.
I’d like to thank Pablo again from Click to Cast for being here to give this presentation. Thank you everyone. Have a great rest of your day.
Thank you. Have a nice day.