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Mass, charge, and spin

From a relativistic point of view, mass-energy is the total amount of energy of a body as expressed in Einstein’s E = mc2. Individual particles may have mass….

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CMB_Timeline300_no_WMAP

Inflate, deflate — Will the universe end in a bang or a whimper?

Most scientists currently think the cosmological Big Bang Theory is valid. In this view, the universe, including time and space, began with a massive explosion at an infinitesimal…

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in a bang or a whimper?
appeared first on Test & Measurement Tips.

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String theory made simpler

The Standard Model of particle physics has been widely accepted among theoreticians but the problem is that it doesn’t integrate all that well with Einstein’s Theory of Relativity….

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Logic-gates

A hands-on way to learn digital logic functions

Spark Fun offers a battery-powered experimenter’s logic block kit that provides a visual representation of digital logic gates. It includes the battery and logic blocks with LEDs showing…

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digital logic functions
appeared first on Test & Measurement Tips.

The characteristic impedance of the universe

Does the universe have characteristic impedance? If so, what is its value? Answers begin to emerge as we consider these facts: 1. Characteristic impedance is an attribute of…

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Stephen Hawking and Hawking radiation

Stephen Hawking, the well-known cosmologist and theoretical physicist, has focused his intellect on an elusive problem: How can Einstein’s relativistic universe be reconciled with our quantum understanding of…

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The basics of PC-based oscilloscopes

The PC-based oscilloscope has one major thing going for it: It is much less expensive than a conventional bench-type or even hand-held oscilloscope. If the instrument were much…

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The basics of digital pulsers and current tracers

In the development or debugging of circuits or electrical wiring, there can come a time when neither logic probe nor multimeter (nor oscilloscope for that matter) will display…

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Digital troubleshooting with logic probes and logic pulsers

Analog signals exhibit amplitude that varies along a continuum between minimum and maximum values. Digital signals, of course, exist at separate predetermined levels or increments. The most common…

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Memory depth and sampling rate in oscilloscopes

A modern oscilloscope consists first of a front end, the purpose of which is to acquire the signal from the device or equipment of interest. The signal is…

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rate in oscilloscopes
appeared first on Test & Measurement Tips.

Basics of bandwidth in an oscilloscope

The bandwidth specification in an oscilloscope is applicable to digital as well as analog instruments. Early oscilloscopes, or more properly oscillographs, consisted of a magnetically-driven pen that would…

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Basics of electrical metallic tubing

There are a number of metal and nonmetallic raceways in common use. Conduit is a subcategory. Electrical Metallic Tubing (EMT), a familiar sight in commercial and industrial facilities,…

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hysteresis

Steinmetz and magnetic hysteresis

Charles Proteus Steinmetz was born April 9, 1865, the day Lee sent a message to Grant announcing his willingness to surrender, thus ending the American Civil War. Steinmetz…

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VIDEO: Using the Tektronix TCP0030A Current Probe with the Tektronix MDO3104 Digital Storage Oscilloscope

The Tektronix TCP0030A current probe extends the functionality of Tektronix 3000 and 4000 Series oscilloscopes so that they are capable of measuring and displaying current as well as…

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VIDEO: Spectrum Analyzer capability of the Tektronix MDO 3104 Digital Storage Oscilloscope

The Tektronix MDO 3104 is a six-in-one instrument that includes a built-in spectrum analyzer. We look at a high-frequency signal from the built-in arbitrary frequency generator.

The post VIDEO: Spectrum Analyzer capability of the Tektronix MDO 3104 Di…

Where would we be without these electrical experiments?

The World Congress on Engineering in London, England is billed as a catalyst for innovation and an annual benchmark for measuring the industry’s evolution. To mark the event,…

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Multimeter

Basic motor testing with multimeters and ammeters

When an electric motor fails to start, runs intermittently, runs hot, or continually trips its overcurrent device, there my be a variety of causes. Sometimes the trouble lies…

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universal-motor-torque-speed

Basics of universal electric motors

For a rotary electric motor to work, there must be two magnetic fields, one associated with the stator and the other with the rotor. At least one of…

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Vollum-and-Murdock

Oscilloscope pioneers Murdock and Vollum and the founding of Tektronix

In the 1930’s, Melvin J. (Jack) Murdock owned and operated a radio and appliance store at the corner of Foster Road and 67th in Southeast Portland, Oregon. Despite…

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and the founding of Tektronix
appeared first on Test & Measurement Tips.

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Howard Vollum, the father of scope triggering

Howard Vollum (pronounced VAH-lum) was the key figure in the development of the oscilloscope as we know it today. Following World War Two, Vollum worked with a few…

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tesla-motor

Tesla and his induction motor

When Nikola Tesla (1856-1943)was 28, he relocated to New York City to work for Thomas Edison. There was far more opportunity in New York than back in Serbia,…

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Walk-in

Basics of refrigeration

At first glance, refrigeration may seem an impossibility, at least from the standpoint of thermodynamics. How can you burn energy, increase entropy, and at the same time cause…

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impedance-matching

The principle of impedance matching

Impedance is an umbrella term that includes resistance and both inductive and capacitive reactance. The two reactances are frequency dependent and pull in opposing directions, so to speak….

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Megger

Measuring motor insulation with a Megger

When it comes to checking out electric motors, there are special measuring instruments that may be used to detect and diagnose malfunctions. The insulation resistance tester, generally known…

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Basics of induction motors

Induction motors are considered asynchronous. This is because while their speed depends upon the eternal sine wave, it is not precisely synchronized to it. In an induction motor,…

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