tesla-motor

Tesla and his induction motor

When Nikola Tesla (1856-1943)was 28, he relocated to New York City to work for Thomas Edison. There was far more opportunity in New York than back in Serbia,…

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Walk-in

Basics of refrigeration

At first glance, refrigeration may seem an impossibility, at least from the standpoint of thermodynamics. How can you burn energy, increase entropy, and at the same time cause…

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Megger

Measuring motor insulation with a Megger

When it comes to checking out electric motors, there are special measuring instruments that may be used to detect and diagnose malfunctions. The insulation resistance tester, generally known…

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slip

Basics of induction motors

Induction motors are considered asynchronous. This is because while their speed depends upon the eternal sine wave, it is not precisely synchronized to it. In an induction motor,…

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Using Cursors in the LeCroy Wavesurfer 3024 Digital Storage Oscilloscope

In the LeCroy Wavesurfer 3024, Cursors provide a convenient way to bracket portions of a waveform for the purpose of analysis and measurement.

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dipole-pattern

Basics of antennas

An antenna is an electrical device, usually a specially sized and shaped metal body, that converts electrical power to radio waves for a transmitter and radio waves to…

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network-analyzier

How Spectrum Analyzers differ from Network Analyzers

By Lisa Clark Before we differentiate a spectrum analyzer and a network analyzer, it is important to understand what these two instruments are, and what function they perform….

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Keysight-oscilloscope

The FFT and the Universal Wavefunction

The Fourier Transform emerged from Joseph Fourier’s Analytic Theory of Heat (1822). Back then, of course, the focus was not on the behavior of electricity. Fourier’s insights pertained…

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voltage-law

Kirchoff’s Circuit Laws

Gustav Kirchhoff formulated a number of principles or laws, which fall into three basic categories: electrical circuits, spectroscopy and thermochemistry. Kirchhoff proposed two electrical circuit laws. His current…

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maxwell

The arrow of time and the 2nd law of thermodynamics

First mention of the Arrow of Time was by Sir Arthur Eddington. He was the noted British astrophysicist who in May, 1919 conducted an expedition to an island…

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hertz-setup

Heinrich Hertz and Maxwell’s theory of wave propagation

Heinrich Hertz, who demonstrated the existence of electromagnetic waves predicted by James Clerk Maxwell, died after a long illness in 1864 at the age of 36. In 1930…

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standard-model

The Standard Model, a Theory of Almost Everything

The Standard Model is a remarkably successful synthesis of much that we know about electromagnetic, weak and strong nuclear forces. It also classifies all known subatomic particles. As…

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Basics of quantum entanglement

Erwin Schrödinger was the first to use the word “entanglement” (Verschränkung), in a letter to Albert Einstein. His intent was to describe the connection between two particles that…

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AltechUltraCapacitorModulesDC-UPS

New DC/UPS product replaces traditional battery-based back-up system

Altech Corp’s new Ultra Capacitor Modules DC/UPS can be used in place of a battery system to ensure back up power. They are DIN-rail mountable, virtually maintenance free…

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Paul Dirac and his wave equation

It has been said of Paul Dirac (1902-1984) that he was able to conjure laws of nature from pure thought. His method was not experimental, but instead theoretical….

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lightning-rods

Lightning and its myths

In many ancient mythologies, lightning and the associated thunder crash were seen as mechanisms for divine retribution. Though we are well beyond that view, the public still has…

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Wolfgang Pauli and the exclusion principle

Simply stated, the elementary particles that constitute matter are fermions and the elementary particles that constitute energy are bosons. Fermions have half-integer (1/2, 3/2, 5/2 …) spin while…

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Heisenberg and the uncertainty principle

Werner Heisenberg (1901-1976) propounded (as applicable to quantum mechanics) his Uncertainty principle in 1927. It stated that there is a fundamental limit to the precision with which certain…

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New 45 GHz Optical Modulation Analyzer for 400G Communications Testing from Tektronix

Tektronix, Inc. has unveiled a new 45 GHz optical modulation analyzer (OMA) capable of supporting the latest 100G and next-gen 400G communications standards. With support for single-carrier or…

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70 GHz Real-Time Oscilloscope from Tektronix

Tektronix, Inc. has released the DPO70000SX 70 GHz ATI Performance Oscilloscope featuring the lowest-noise and highest effective bits of any ultra-high bandwidth real-time oscilloscope available on the market….

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dish-antenna-combo

Basics of waveguides

There is something almost comical about a waveguide – the notion that electromagnetic signals or usable power could pass through a hollow pipe and that techniques appropriate to…

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coax

Basics of coax cable

Coaxial cable receives its name because all its parts — outer jacket, grounded return conductor, dielectric layer and inner metallic pin — share a common axis. Many installers…

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OhmsLawWheel-288x300

Georg Simon Ohm and the basis for circuit theory

Georg Simon Ohm (1789-1854) was an educator, mathematician and theoretician, but above all he was an experimenter. Ohm’s law, relating electrical force, current and resistance in a circuit,…

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Video: Keysight MSO-X 4054A Oscilloscope Math Overview

A look at Math functions, simple and complex, available in the Keysight 4000-X Series instruments, beginning with add, subtract, multiply and divide and going on to the Fourier…

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Video: How To Access and View On-Board Demos in the Keysight MSO-X 4054A Oscilloscope

Demos provide a wealth of information regarding accessing and analyzing a variety of analog and digital signals. The demos provide an introduction to debugging and repair operations using…

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